Very high intensity, very short duration For Losing Weight While Pregnancy Field events (shot put, discus, high jump); track sprints (50-200 m); swimming sprints (50 m); sprint cycling (200 m); power lifting; bobsled 5-7 g/kg of body weight
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Moderate intensity, moderate duration (30-60 minutes) 10K running 6-8 g/kg of body weight
Moderate to high volume or intermittent high intensity (1-3 hours) Soccer, basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, tennis 6-10 g/kg of body weight
Moderate intensity, long duration (1+ hours) Marathon or distance running, distance swimming, Nordic skiing, distance cycling. 8-10 g/kg of body weight
Very high volume or intensity (>4-5 hours) Ultradistance running, swimming, or cycling; triathalon; adventure sports 8-12 g/kg of body weight
The recommended intakes assume individuals have an overall adequate energy (calorie) intake; individuals in an energy deficit will be discussed in Chapter 8. These carbohydrate values are ranges and should be personalized based upon individual needs. Many athletes use periodization in their training programs that include high-volume or high-intensity training along with periods of low-volume or low-intensity training. Such changes warrant adjustments in carbohydrate intake so it matches training demands.
Overall, athletes should include nutrient-dense, mostly complex carbohydrates paired with appropriate amounts of protein and fat to meet energy needs and allow for muscle recovery and growth. This dietary pattern will contribute to overall health. Athletes can strategically time the intake of the macronutrients in their diet to optimize their training and competition. Appropriate timing of carbohydrate intake can be especially helpful for optimal training and performance. When reading the following recommendations, keep in mind that specific timing recommendations of carbohydrate consumption will contribute toward an athlete’s overall daily carbohydrate needs.