Black eye makeup is so popular today that it’s hard to imagine a time when it wasn’t used. But despite the fact that kohl was the ancient cosmetic of choice—and continued to be used throughout India, South Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Africa for religious, health, and cosmetic purposes— the preference in Europe following the decline of the Roman empire for pale, rouged skin with minimal eye adornment was constant from the medieval to the Edwardian age. Thus, obviously blackened eyes went out of fashion for well over a thousand years, reemerging as a makeup mainstay in the 1920s. The discovery of Tutankhamen’s tomb in 1923—and the fascination with all things ancient and exotic that it provoked—played a major part in eyeliner’s comeback (as we shall see), as did Hollywood and the fact that women were beginning to feel comfortable wearing more conspicuous makeup without fear of social disapprobation. Since then, trends and technology have changed, but our love of black paint has stayed constant. In the twenty-first century, you’re as likely to see a graphic black liner on a Bollywood film set as on the streets of Berlin or the catwalks of Paris. The most famous Egyptian queen alongside Cleopatra, Nefertiti is synonymous with ancient beauty—even her name itself means “the beautiful one has come.” The main reason she continues to figure so prominently in our collective imagination as a beauty icon is the famous bust of her likeness, made of limestone and covered with layers of painted stucco. Created around 1340 BC by the royal court sculptor, Thutmose, and discovered in 1912, it is now displayed in its own room in the Berlin Egyptian Museum (though the Egyptian authorities have been requesting its return for many years).